Sign up to received email updates. On the question of Aboriginal ceremonial matters in sentencing see para 491. Where possible, data is also provided that identifies: 1. absolute change in the situation of Indig… Figures cited in Secretariat for National Aboriginal & Islander Child Care. [27]J Worrall, ‘European Courts and Tribal Aborigines — A Statistical Collection of Dispositions from the North-West Reserve of South Australia (1982) 15 ANZ J Crim 47. 3.20Figure 3.3 below shows that the imprisonment rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has increased 41% over 10 years, from 1,438 per 100,000 in 2006 to 2,039 per 100,000 persons in 2016. The figures do not include persons detained locally in police lock-ups etc. Opinion of adults who think the criminal justice system is equal U.S. May 2020 Crime rate in Romania 2015-2019 Statista is a great source of knowledge, and pretty helpful to manage the daily work. [42]eg Case No 5 (carnal knowledge): id, 8-9. Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR2) Survey. For NSW see A Gorta and R Hunter, ‘Aborigines in NSW Prisons’ (1985) 18 ANZ J Crim 25; Ronalds, Chapman & Kitchener (1983) 172-83; T Milne, ‘Aborigines and the Criminal Justice System’ in M Findlay, SJ Egger & J Sutton (ed) Issues in Criminal Justice Administration, George Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1983, 184, 189-194. Although it does not fall neatly into either of Wilson’s categories, undoubtedly the people of Groote Eylandt retain relatively high levels of traditional culture. Karly Warner, the chief executive of the Aboriginal Legal Service, said the data was an illustration of how Indigenous people were treated differently “at every stage” of the justice system. Phone +61 7 3248 1224 [18]A Sutton, ‘Crime Statistics Relating to Aboriginal People In South Australia’ in B Swanton (ed), Aborigines and Criminal Justice, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra, 1984, 363, 365. [4] E Eggleston, Fear, Favour or Affection, ANU Press, Canberra, 1976, 15. [11]House of Representatives, Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs, Aboriginal Legal Aid, AGPS, Canberra, 1980,40-4. See now A Ligertwood, ‘Aborigines in the Criminal Courts’ in P Hanks & B Keon-Cohen (ed) Aborigines and the Law, George Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1984, 191. Aboriginal justice indicators The visualisation below contains information relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and their contact with Victoria Police. [40] In a considerable majority of the cases the defendant’s act was a violation both of his own community’s law and of the general law, and the issue was the interaction between them in sentencing. Many sources report over-representation of Indigenous offenders at all stages of the criminal justice system. For SA see Aboriginal Legal Rights Movement, Annual Report 1982-3, Adelaide, 1983, 5; Office of Crime Statistics (SA), Crime and Justice in South Australia, Attorney-General’s Department, Adelaide, 1985, 78. [36]A large number of other cases, both during this period and more recent ones, have since come to the Commission’s attention. Yet correctional statistics continue to demonstrate that Aboriginal peoples are overrepresented in criminal justice statistics, particularly in the Prairie provinces. Aboriginal Marriages and Family Structures, Marriage in Traditional Aboriginal Societies, Aboriginal Family and Child Care Arrangements, 13. Discrimination, Equality and Pluralism, Criteria for Equality: A Comparative Perspective, The Position under the United States Constitution, The Position in Other Comparable Jurisdictions, Pluralism, Public Opinion and the Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws, Human Rights and Indigenous Minorities: Collective Guarantees, The Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws and Human Rights Standards, 12. Indeed, if the characteristics of traditionally oriented Aboriginal offenders do not differ markedly from the characteristics of other Aboriginal offenders, it may be that solutions will not be found directly through any form of recognition of Aboriginal customary laws. They confirm the conclusions drawn from the sample of cases in RP6A. The Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody in the early 1990s proposed that the over-representation of Indigenous people in prison was due to the combined effect of bias in the criminal justice system and Indigenous economic and social disadvantage . This paper provides an overview of national statistics pertaining to the high level of incarceration of Indigenous Australians and the socioeconomic background to that phenomenon. Securing Hunting, Fishing and Gathering Rights, Aboriginal Participation in Resource Management, Administrative and Political Constraints of the Federal System. For non-Indigenous people, the imprisonment rate has increased by 24%, from 131 to 163 per 100,000 over the same period. In comparison, the homicide rate for Indigenous men (13.40 per 100,000 Indigenous men) increased by 2% in 2017. See also para 497, and cf para 492-6 where some of the more significant cases are discussed. The elderly: 28% report3 3. Sydney, Australia: Sydney University Institute of Criminology. This collection of statistics has been chosen to highlight the current situation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (hereon referred to as Indigenous peoples) across a range of indicators including: health; education; employment; housing; and contact with criminal justice and welfare systems. [8]Source: J Walker and D Biles, Australian Prisoners 1984, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra 1985, 22. The Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework explicitly recognises that the contemporary social and economic circumstances of Aboriginal people are inextricably linked to ongoing and previous generations’ experiences of European colonisation. See para 22, 29. Customary and cultural elements may however still be of relevance in criminal law cases (including both serious and minor offences[43]). See also Wilson (1985). Female Students: 20% report 2. Only 230 out of every 1,000 sexual assaults are reported to police. Traditional Hunting, Fishing and Gathering Practices, Traditional Hunting, Fishing and Gathering in Australia. Aboriginal Customary Laws: Recognition? Aboriginal people constitute only four percent of Canada’s population but make up nearly a quarter of inmates in federal, provincial and territorial jails and prisons. See also R Bailey, ‘A Comparison of Appearances By Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children Before the Children’s Court and Children’s Aid Panels in South Australia’, id, 43; J Wundersitz & F Gale, Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Appearances before Children’s Courts and Children’s Aid Panels in South Australia (1 July 1979-30 June 1983): The First Four Years of Operation of the Children’s Protection and Young Offenders Act 1979, unpublished report submitted to SA Department for Community Welfare, Adelaide, 1984; and the research by Brady and Morice described in para 399. A Study of a Remote Community, Flinders University of SA, Western Desert Project, 1982. Community Wardens and other Forms of Self-Policing, Policing Aboriginal Communities: Conclusions, 33. In 2014, Aboriginal persons accounted for just over one quarter of all provincial and territorial admissions, significantly higher than the percentage recorded in 1978 (16%). Worrall, 53. (Monograph Series No. Aborigines are grossly over-represented in Australian criminal statistics, both in terms of conviction rates and rates of imprisonment. It is commonly the case. See also para 398 n 22. The detention rate for Indigenous juveniles is 397 per 100 000,which is 28 times higher than the rate for non-Indigenous juveniles(14 per 100 000). For earlier data on WA see MA Martin, Aborigines and the Criminal Justice System: A Review of the Literature, WA Department of Corrections, 1973, 5. Difficulties of Application: The Status and Scope of the Interrogation Rules, 23. They are more likely to require changes in the general law and its administration, or improving the social, educational and economic conditions in which Aborigines live. Aboriginal deaths in custody is a political and social issue in Australia.It rose in prominence in the early 1980s, with Aboriginal activists campaigning following the death of 16-year-old John Peter Pat in 1983. We pay our respects to the people, the cultures and the elders past, present and emerging. On the other hand, crime rates on Groote Eylandt have been shown to be very high. Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws (ALRC Report 31), 17. Footnote. The Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws and Traditions Today, The Position of Torres Strait Islanders and South Sea Islanders, The Definition of Aboriginal Customary Laws. In only three of the selected cases could it be said with some certainty that the defendant was justified in acting as he did under Aboriginal customary laws. The exception (Case No 34) was a borderline mentally retarded girl who killed her husband under severe provocation and received a 12 month suspended sentence: id, 36-7. eg Case No 5 (carnal knowledge): id, 8-9. See para 33-34. See also PR Wilson, ‘Black Death White Hands Revisited: The Case of Palm Island’ (1985) 18. The ‘homeland’ or outstation movement is reversing this trend to some extent, but many relatively large communities remain. Given the disproportionately high representation of Aboriginal people within the criminal justice system, the lack of critical criminological analysis of the statistics is both surprising and unsatisfactory. No comment was given for the other case. It was established in 1969. These conclusions are similar to those reached in an earlier unpublished study (1977-8) by ALC Ligertwood, Submission 104 (Sept 1978). 23-10-2017 Indigenous justice, Prisoners, Mental health, Criminal justice system, Peer-reviewed Of the people aged 10 to 17 in detention or community-based supervision, 12.6 per 10,000 people are non-Aboriginal, but 15 times as many, or 189 per 10,000, are Aboriginal. [25]id, 30. Criminal offenders may be punished through the law by fines, imprisonment and/or community service. Figures for Queensland are not available. [32]As Brady and Morice point out, this was the case with Yalata: id, 35, 78-80, 87, 141. In Cunneen, C. Aboriginal Societies: The Experience of Contact, Changing Policies Towards Aboriginal People, Impacts of Settlement on Aboriginal People, 4. Local Justice Mechanisms: Options for Aboriginal Communities, Aborigines as Officials in the Ordinary Courts. This aspect is returned to in para 402. The ‘homeland’ or outstation movement is reversing this trend to some extent, but many relatively large communities remain. [23]AME Duckworth, CR Foley-Jones, P Lowe and M Mailer, ‘Imprisonment of Aborigines in North Western Australia’ (1982) 15 ANZ J Crim 26. Subsequent deaths in custody, considered suspicious by families of the deceased, culminated in the 1987 Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RCIADIC). This recognition equally applies to Aboriginal over-representation in criminal justice. No comment was given for the other case. [2]For the history of the application of British law to Aborigines see para 39-45. [35]ACL RP 6A, J Crawford and P Hennessy, Cases on Traditional Punishments and Sentencing (September 1982). Indigenous Justice Mechanisms in some Overseas Countries: Models and Comparisons, 31. 35. Aboriginal over-representation in the NSW Criminal Justice System The over-representation of Aboriginal Australians in custody is a matter of long-standing and justified public concern. [13]Office of Crime Statistics (SA), Courts of Summary Jurisdiction 1 January-30 June 1983, Attorney-General’s Department, Adelaide, 1985, 45. However, for present purposes, some general conclusions may be drawn: Even when traditionally oriented Aborigines are involved in criminal charges, the case will frequently involve non-traditional elements (especially alcohol) or a non-traditional offence. The recommendations referred to in the report were already in operation … at the time the survey was taken. The primary data derive from the annual Adult Correctional Services survey conducted by Statistics Canada. Settler justice and Aboriginal homicide in late colonial Australia . In her ‘pioneering study’, Dr Eggleston pointed out that in Western Australia in 1965, Aborigines, who constituted 2.5% of the State’s population, were convicted of 11% of offences and made up 24% of the prison population. See also para 497, and cf para 492-6 where some of the more significant cases are discussed. As Brady and Morice point out, this was the case with Yalata: id, 35, 78-80, 87, 141. id, 177-8, 180. Aboriginal prisoners with cognitive impairment: Is this the highest risk group? Other Methods of Proof: Assessors, Court Experts, Pre-Sentence Reports, Justice Mechanisms in Aboriginal Communities: Needs, Problems and Responses, 28. [20]See para 22, 29. NSW Police Seminar Notes, Aborigines and the Criminal Justice System, 3-4 November 1982. Members of the military: 43% of female victims and 10% of male victims reported.4 Aboriginal Customary Laws: Aboriginal Child Custody, Fostering and Adoption, Questions of Principle and Implementation, Federal, State and Territory Forums for Issues of Aboriginal Child Custody, Recognition of Customary or De Facto Adoption, Social Security and the Care and Custody of Aboriginal Children, The Interaction of Aboriginal Customary Laws and the Criminal Law, Legal Pluralism in the Criminal Law: Overseas Experience, 18. Female Non-Students: 32% report 2. [34]id, 177-8, 180. See further para 537. J Worrall, ‘European Courts and Tribal Aborigines — A Statistical Collection of Dispositions from the North-West Reserve of South Australia (1982) 15. They confirm the conclusions drawn from the sample of cases in RP6A. A large number of other cases, both during this period and more recent ones, have since come to the Commission’s attention. Between 2011-12 and 2016-17, the rate of Aboriginal adults under justice supervision increased by 52.6 per cent (from 294.5 to 449.5 per 10,000) compared with a 34 per cent increase among non-Aboriginal adults (from 28.6 to 38.4 per 10,000) [i]. Indigenous females had an overall rate of violent victimization that was double that of Indigenous males and close to triple that of non-Indigenous females. See also para 491, 532-4. The Commission’s Work on the Reference, Special Needs for Consultation and Discussion, 3. Aboriginal Customary Laws and Sentencing, Aboriginal Customary Laws and Sentencing: Existing Law and Practice, The Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws in Sentencing, Aboriginal Customary Laws and the Notion of ‘Punishment’, Sentencing and Aboriginal Customary Laws: General Principles, Taking Aboriginal Customary Laws into Account, Incorporating Aboriginal Customary Laws in Sentencing, Related Questions of Evidence and Procedure, 22. Statistics about - Crime and victims, Drugs and crime, Criminal offenders, The justice system in the United States, Law enforcement, Prosecution, Courts and sentencing, Corrections, Justice expenditure and employment. [7] One reason for this has been the abolition of certain welfare and status offences only applicable to Aborigines: id, 226-41. The homicide rate for Indigenous men has been increasing consistently since 2014. The rate of violent victimization among Indigenous people was more than double that of non-Indigenous people (163 incidents per 1,000 people vs. 74). See also PR Wilson, ‘Black Death White Hands Revisited: The Case of Palm Island’ (1985) 18 ANZ J Crim 49. The Australian Law Reform Commission acknowledges the traditional owners and custodians of country throughout Australia and acknowledges their continuing connection to land, sea and community. General Issues of Evidence and Procedure, 24. Aboriginal Traditional Marriage: Areas for Recognition, Functional Recognition of Traditional Marriage, Legitimacy of Children, Adoption and Related Issues, Questions of Maintenance and Property Distribution, Spousal Compellability in the Law of Evidence, 15. While young Aboriginal people make up only 6% of the population, 58% of young people in prison are Aboriginal. Mark Finnane* This article examines the hidden history of criminal justice in late colonial Australia by focussing on Aboriginal inter-se offending. A collection of quarterly statistics on activity in the criminal justice system and biennial compendiums on the experiences of women and different ethnic groups of the criminal justice system. [28]For the SA Police practice of laying lesser charges locally see para 473. Special Protection for Aboriginal Suspects? Special Aboriginal Courts and Justice Schemes, Support Structures for the Aboriginal Courts, 30. [37]The exception (Case No 34) was a borderline mentally retarded girl who killed her husband under severe provocation and received a 12 month suspended sentence: id, 36-7. See further para 536. [14]Aboriginal Legal Rights Movement, Annual Report 1982-3, Adelaide, 1983, 5. The Criminal Code and the Youth Criminal Justice Act both consider the unique, or special, legal status of Aboriginal people in Canada. The Proof of Aboriginal Customary Laws, Proof of Customary Laws: The Overseas Experience, Proof of Aboriginal Customary Laws: The Australian Experience, Methods of Proving Aboriginal Customary Laws, 26. Latest figures indicate that the Aboriginal imprisonment rate in NSW is nearly 10 times the non-Aboriginal imprisonment rate (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2020). Aboriginal Customary laws and the Criminal Justice System. Individuals of college-age2 1. In 2010, nearly 153,000 youths were accused of committing a crime: 42% were charged (or recommended for charging) by police; and; 58% were dealt with by means other than the formal laying of a charge (e.g. Email info@alrc.gov.au, PO Box 12953 When controlling for various risk factors, Indig… BOCSAR found that the number of Aboriginal people in prison in NSW increased by 47 per cent in the seven years to March this year, while an Aboriginal defendant is 11 per cent more likely to be refused bail by a court. These conclusions are similar to those reached in an earlier unpublished study (1977-8) by ALC Ligertwood. As of September 2019, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners represented 28% of the total adult prisoner population, while accounting for 3.3% of the general population. George Street Post Shop See also Wilson (1985). It is unlikely that the problems reflected by those exorbitant rates will be solved by the recognition of Aboriginal customary laws within the substantive criminal law. A small proportion of all prisoners were not identified as to race (c 10% in SA and Vic, 1-2% in NSW and Tas; none in WA and NT). In the most recent year for which data are available (2000–2001), Aboriginal offenders accounted for 19% of provincial admissions and 17% of federal admissions to custody. See para 33-34. Stay informed with all of the latest news from the ALRC. Arguments for the Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws, Arguments against the Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws, 9. The NSW Atlas of Aboriginal Placeson the same website includes a map, photos, location information and gazettal notices, and explains the significance of each declared Aboriginal place. [9]P Wilson, Black Death White Hands, George Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1982, 4. The high rates of Aboriginal admissions to custody have been noted by Commissions of Inquiry, all levels of government, and Corrections texts in Canada for some time. [16]cf C Ronalds, M Chapman & K Kitchener, ‘Policing Aborigines’ in M Findlay, SJ Egger & J Sutton (ed) Issues in Criminal Justice Administration, George Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1983, 168, 172. The Justice report, Queensland provides an overview of the volume of criminal justice matters in Queensland, and includes statistics relating to criminal courts, youth justice, and adult corrective services. For the SA Police practice of laying lesser charges locally see para 473. The implications of the material outlined in para 394-399, and the situation it portrays, will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 21 in the context of sentencing. ), Aboriginal perspectives on criminal justice. [12]NSW Anti-Discrimination Board, Study of Street Offences by Aborigines (1982) iv. See also para 398 n 22. Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws at Common Law: The Settled Colony Debate, 6. The Criminal Code considers the over-representation of Aboriginal people in the Canadian criminal justice system. (Ed. Conclusions and Implementation: The Way Forward? The Australian criminal justice system The criminal justice system is a system of laws and rulings which protect community members and their property 2.It determines which events causing injury or offence to community members, are criminal. See the material presented in Groote Eylandt Aboriginal Task Force, Report (1985) 14-15, 20-2, 25-8, and cf D Biles, Groote Eylandt Prisoners. Aboriginal Customary Laws and Substantive Criminal Liability, Criminal Law Defences and Aboriginal Customary Laws, Intoxication and Diminished Responsibility, Conclusion: Intent and Criminal Law Defences, Aboriginal Customary Law as a Ground of Criminal Liability, 21. Wilson (1982) 17-18. For the history of the application of British law to Aborigines see para 39-45. ne reason for this has been the abolition of certain welfare and status offences only applicable to Aborigines: id, 226-41. id, 5. The relevance of Aboriginal traditions and customary laws to minor ‘public order’ offences has been stressed by M Langton, ‘Medicine Square’: For the Recognition of Aboriginal Swearings and Fighting as Customary Law; unpublished, BA Honours thesis, ANU, Canberra, 1983. Review of the Legislative Framework for Corporations and Financial Services Regulation, The Framework of Religious Exemptions in Anti-discrimination Legislation, Australia’s Corporate Criminal Responsibility Regime, 2. [41] In a few cases the defendant’s acts were regarded as not serious by the local community, or were viewed sympathetically in the circumstances, and again the issue was the relevance of this factor in sentencing.[42]. Queensland 4003. On the question of Aboriginal ceremonial matters in sentencing see para 491. 34. The Protection and Distribution of Property, Distribution of Property between Living Persons[2], 16. [19]W Clifford, ‘An Approach to Aboriginal Criminology’ (1982) 15 ANZ J Crim 3, 8-9. [29]Worrall, 53. [31]M Brady & R Morice, Aboriginal Adolescent Offending Behaviour. Aboriginal prisoners with cognitive impairment: Is this the highest risk group. [24]ie less than 6 months to their release (whether or not on parole): id, 28. These conclusions do not deny the possibility that the recognition of Aboriginal customary laws may assist indirectly in maintaining order in Aboriginal communities. Aboriginal Customary Laws and Anglo-Australian Law After 1788, Protest and Reform in the 1920s and 1930s, 5. Information Publication SchemeAccess to Information, Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, Child protection, Children, Young people, Criminal justice system, Indigenous, Peer-reviewed, Indigenous, Criminal justice system, Over-representation, Offenders, Comparative analysis, Peer-reviewed, Criminal justice system, Corrections costs, Cost effectiveness, Peer-reviewed, Indigenous justice, Prisoners, Mental health, Criminal justice system, Peer-reviewed, Care-experienced children and the criminal justice system, The costs of Indigenous and non-Indigenous offender trajectories, Justice reinvestment in Australia: A review of the literature. Dispute Settlement in Aboriginal Communities, 29. The Recognition of Traditional Marriages: General Approach, Existing Recognition of Traditional Marriages under Australian Law, Alternative Forms of Recognition of Aboriginal Traditional Marriages, Recognition of Traditional Marriages as De Facto Relationships, Enforcement of Traditional Marriage Rules, Traditional Marriage: Definition and Proof, 14. Some Implications. 1). [3] eg Tuckiar v R (1934) 52 CLR 335; see para 5 1. Criminal Investigation and Police Interrogation of Aborigines, The Law relating to Interrogation and Confessions, The Need for Special Protection of Aboriginal Suspects, Judicial Regulation of Aboriginal Confessional Evidence, Safeguards for Aboriginal Suspects in Legislation and Police Standing Orders. Aboriginal Hunting, Fishing and Gathering Rights: Current Australian Legislation, Legislation on Hunting and Gathering Rights, Access to Land for Hunting and Gathering: The Present Position, Miscellaneous Restrictions Under Australian Legislation, Australian Legislation on Hunting, Fishing and Gathering: An Overview, 36. Most Aboriginal defendants appearing in late colonial criminal courts were prosecuted for violent crimes against other Aboriginal A Research Report, Australian Institute of Criminology, 1983. The Office of Environment and Heritage website on its Search for heritage pagegives users information about Aboriginal objects and Aboriginal places which have been declared by the Minister for the Environment to have special significance for Aboriginal culture. Statistics related to criminal activity, criminal justice and other justice topics. Indigenous men are 14.7 times more likely to be imprisoned than non-Indigenous men while Indigenous women are 21.2 times more likely to be … The paucity of well presented data on a wider scale makes it difficult to respond with any degree of confidence to the questions raised in para 397. [21]Wilson (1982) 17-18. [17]Figures cited in Secretariat for National Aboriginal & Islander Child Care, First Interim Report on the Aboriginal Fostering and Adoption Principles and its Implementation in the States of Australia, Fitzroy, 1985, Appendix 3 & 5. More than one-third (38%) of persons accused of homicide in 2017 were identified by police as Indigenous. That means about 3 out of 4 go unreported.1 1. NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research is a statistical and research agency within the Department of Communities and Justice. Hunting, Fishing and Gathering Rights: Legislation or Common Law? [22]On the other hand, crime rates on Groote Eylandt have been shown to be very high. 8. The data covers the period from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2018 and includes data on alleged offenders, victims of crime, and parties involved in family violence incidents. In 2014, 28% of Indigenous people (aged 15+) reported being victimized in the previous 12 months, compared to 18% of non-Indigenous peopleFootnote 1. See the material presented in Groote Eylandt Aboriginal Task Force, AME Duckworth, CR Foley-Jones, P Lowe and M Mailer, ‘Imprisonment of Aborigines in North Western Australia’ (1982) 15. ie less than 6 months to their release (whether or not on parole): id, 28. id, 30. even for traditionally oriented Aborigines, that the act the result of the charge cannot readily be identified as related to Aboriginal customary laws. [10]id, 5. 3.21The over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in prison has increased fr… Aborigines represent 0.7% of the population of SA. Although it does not fall neatly into either of Wilson’s categories, undoubtedly the people of Groote Eylandt retain relatively high levels of traditional culture. 400. Baldly stated, over the period of the study, the number of Aboriginal people in custody increased from 14,576 to 15,349 while the number of non-Aboriginal people in custody decreased significantly from 76,526 to 65,576.15Within the period studied however, Roberts and … Commenting on this Study, Senior Sergeant Bill Galvin of the NSW Police Aboriginal Liaison Unit said: It is my considered opinion that the report is methodologically questionable, it lacks validity, freely adopts the use of damaging generalisations and makes improper use of then and now statistics and out of date facts. Google Scholar [43]The relevance of Aboriginal traditions and customary laws to minor ‘public order’ offences has been stressed by M Langton, ‘Medicine Square’: For the Recognition of Aboriginal Swearings and Fighting as Customary Law; unpublished, BA Honours thesis, ANU, Canberra, 1983. But they do put into perspective the limited character of the Commission’s inquiry in the area of the substantive criminal law. The explanation for very high offence and imprisonment rates of Aborigines is not, necessarily in any direct way, the product of non-recognition of Aboriginal customary laws. House of Representatives, Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs, cf C Ronalds, M Chapman & K Kitchener, ‘Policing Aborigines’ in M Findlay, SJ Egger & J Sutton (ed). A Sutton, ‘Crime Statistics Relating to Aboriginal People In South Australia’ in B Swanton (ed), W Clifford, ‘An Approach to Aboriginal Criminology’ (1982) 15. Aboriginal people and the criminal justice system in the 1990s. 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Case No 5 ( carnal knowledge ): id, 28 inter-se offending homicide in late colonial Australia the were!

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